3458A Manual

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3458A Manual

You will gain insights into the critical parameters of a sensor, irrespective of its physical measurement types, learn about key considerations for choosing the right digital multimeter for sensor testing and characterization and lastly discover methods for characterizing and troubleshooting a sensor using a DMM. Reducing test times translates into lower costs and faster time-to-market; both are important goals in today’s fast-paced and competitive marketplace. This application note covers system cabling errors and dc voltage measurement errors. For an overview of ac voltage measurement errors, see application note, literature number 5988-5512EN. For a discussion of resistance, dc current, ac current and frequency and period measurement errors,see application note, literature number 5988-5513EN. This application note covers ac voltage measurement errors. For an overview of system cabling errors and dc voltage measurement errors, see Application Note 1389-1. For a discussion of resistance, dc current, ac current and frequency and period measurement errors, see Application Note 1389-2. This application note covers resistance, dc current, ac current, and frequency and period measurement errors.. For an overview of system cabling errors and dc voltage measurement errors, see Application Note 1389-1. For a discussion of ac voltage measurement errors, see Application Note 1389-3. Contains operation verification tests, adjustment procedures, performance verification tests, calibration command summary. AGILENT PRODUCT: 3458A Multimeter DURATION OF WARRANTY: 1 yearPage 3: WARNINGS Documentation History. All Editions and Updates of this manual and their creation date are listed below. The first Edition. Page 4 DECLARATION OF CONFORMITYPage 5 Preface. This manual contains installation information, operating and programming information, and configuration information forChapter 1 Installation and Maintenance Sending a Remote Command. 43. Introduction. 15 Getting Data from the.http://fzclicks.com/demo/files/editor/code-of-practice-for-manual-handling-nsw.xml

Page 8 Deleting States. 75 Math Operations. 116. Using the Input Buffer. 75 Real-Time vs. Post-Process. 116. Page 9 APER. 160 OFORMAT. 209High Speed Data Transfers. 355 Amplitude Errors. 359. Page 12 12 ContentsIntroduction. 15. Initial Inspection. 15. Options and Accessories. 16. Installing the Multimeter. Page 14 14 Chapter 1 Installation and MaintenanceIntroductionPage 16 Options and AccessoriesPage 20 Figure 4. Typical GPIB ConnectionsPage 21 Installation The following program verifies that the multimeter is operating and canIntroduction. 25. Before Applying Power. 25. Applying Power. 25IntroductionIt shows you how toPage 28 Making a In the power-on state, DC voltage measurements are selected and thePage 29 Table 7. Function KeysPage 30 Notice the display's MRNG (manual range) annunciator is on. ThisPage 31 If the self-test failed, one or more error conditions have been detected. Refer. Page 32 (unshifted).Page 34 Press:Page 35 demonstrate numeric parameters. Press:Page 36 The second parameter of the NRDGS command specifies the event thatSince this is not a. Page 37 eliminates the GPIB bus-related commands, commands that are seldom usedPage 38 ClearPage 39 arrow keys.After editing the string, press the Enter key to execute the string.Page 42 Figure 10. Installing the keyboard overlay. Operating from RemotePage 43 A typical display is:When sending a remotePage 44 30 ENDPage 45: Chapter 3 Configuring for Measurements Chapter 3 Configuring for Measurements. Introduction. 47 Nested Subprograms. 73. General Configuration. 47 Autostart Subprogram. 73. Page 46 46 Chapter 3 Configuring for MeasurementsIntroductionPage 48 annunciator illuminates.Page 49 routine are.http://x-column.com/medien/code-manuals-indian-railway.xml

This routine takesPage 51 Table 9: Input RatingsPage 52 Presetting the The PRESET NORM command is similar to the RESET command butPage 53 30 ENDPage 59 the multimeter has a power line frequency of 60 Hz and the device beingPage 60 select the integration time that provides adequate speed while maintainingOffset Compensation Because a resistance measurement involves measuring the voltage inducedPage 63 frequency ranges shown in Table 15.Page 64 Analog RMS Conversion The analog RMS conversion directly integrates the input signal and is thePage 66 LEVEL command in Chapter 6 for more information.Page 67 important that the specified bandwidth (particularly the specified lowPage 68 if you specify 60 PLCs of integration time, the multimeter averages six 10Page 70 percent for the synchronous conversion method or 0.4 percent for the randomPage 71 Specifying Ratio To specify ratio measurements, you first select the measurement function forPage 72 DCCUR1.Page 74 The following program statement compresses the previously storedPage 78 enabled still respond to their corresponding conditions. They do not,The following. Page 79: Chapter 4 Making Measurements Chapter 4 Making Measurements. Introduction. 81 AC Bandwidth. 105. Triggering Measurements. 81 Offset Compensation. 105IntroductionPage 82 The Trigger Arm When the specified trigger arm event occurs, it arms the multimeter'sPage 86 with a 1 second interval between readings (this is shown in Figure 18).Page 88 The following example uses EXT as the sample event. The trigger event isPage 89 Table 21. Event Combinations. Trigger Arm Trigger Sample DescriptionAUTO AUTO Any One reading is taken. Page 90 Table 21. Event CombinationsTrigger Arm Trigger Sample DescriptionSGL SYN SYN After executing the TARM. Page 92 Reading FormatsPage 93 Single Real The single real (SREAL) format conforms to IEEE-754 specifications.

ThisPage 94 The SREAL number is then calculated by:Page 95 clearing any stored readings by sending:Since ASCII has the greatest. number. Page 97 in memory.Page 101 Using the SREAL The following program shows how to convert 10 readings output in theThe ENTER statement. Page 103 the output buffer when a new reading is available.)Page 104 Table 22: Commands Executed by PRESET FASTPage 105 Frequency or period measurements: The integration time does not affectFor these measurements, the specified.Page 108 The following program transfers readings directly to the controller at theThis program configures the multimeter. Page 109 The following program is an example of transferring readings from readingPage 110 computer's timer. The events thatThe EXTOUT SRQ pulse does notPage 116 Math OperationsPage 117 those two operations), send:Page 120 Percent The PERC math operation determines the difference, in percent, betweenPage 121 The following program uses the real-time DB operation to determine anLine 40 stores the amplifier's. Page 122 60 ENTER 722;A !SYN EVENT, ENTER DBMPage 123 operation. That is the readings do not have to be recalled from memory inPage 125 For example (using the first equation), if the reading rate is 200Hz and thePage 126 Table 25: Temperature-Related Math OperationsPage 127: Chapter 5 Digitizing Chapter 5 Digitizing. Introduction. 129. Digitizing Methods. 129. The Sampling Rate. 131. Level Triggering. 132IntroductionPage 130 Table 26: Digitizing MethodsPage 131 high-speed mode, the multimeter writes-over any sample still in the outputPage 133 can select the level triggering shown in Figure 27 merely by specifying thePage 134 this case, a negative percentage of the range (-25%) is used to level triggerPage 139 uses whichever command was specified last. (When using the SWEEPPage 141 Figure 31. Sub-sampling exampleThe Sync Source In the preceding sub-sampling example, it was assumed. Page 142 Figure 33.

Typical synchronizing signal for EXT sync sourcePage 144 source event and the first sample in each burst; the default delay forThe measurement uses the default. Page 146 Viewing Sampled DataPage 147 101!FAST OPERATION, TARM SYN, SUB-SAMPLING (SINT OUTPUT FORMAT), 10V RANGEPage 149: Chapter 6 Command Reference Chapter 6 Command Reference. Introduction. 151 LFREQ. 191Page 150 SWEEP. 248Chapter 6 Command Reference. IntroductionThis includesThe range of values for thisCommands by Functional GroupPage 156 Commands vs. Measurement Functions. Commands vs. Measurement FunctionsPage 157 ACALPage 163 AZEROPage 164 BEEPWhen enabled, the beeper emits a 1 kHz beepPage 166 COMPRESSPage 168 DCI, DCVPage 169 DEFKEYPage 170 DELAYA subprogram name. Page 172 DSAC, DSDCPage 173 DSAC, DSDCPage 174 EMASKPage 179 EXTOUTFIXEDZ. Page 181 FREQPage 182 FSOURCEPage 184 FUNCPage 185 FUNCPage 187 ISCALE?Page 188 ISCALE?Page 194 MATHPage 195 MATHPage 197 MENUPage 199 MFORMATPage 201 MMATHPage 202 MMATHThe first response is the. Page 205 NPLCPage 207 NRDGSThe valid range for thisPage 208 NRDGSPage 211 OFORMATPage 215 PAUSEThe subprogram can be resumed using thePage 216 PERPage 217 PRESET. Page 218 PRESETFor the remaining. Page 224 RATIOPage 228 REV?The first numberPage 229 RMEMRecords correspond to thePage 231 RSTATEPage 232 SCAL. Page 233 SETACVThe parameters are:Page 236 SRQThe SSAC function measures only the. Page 238 SSAC, SSDCPage 239 SSAC, SSDCPage 243 SSRCPage 245 STB?Page 246 SUBAfter the external trigger is received, thePage 249 SWEEPPage 250 SWEEPPage 252 TARM. Page 253 TBUFFIf you want to regain control of the busPage 254 TEMP?Page 255 TESTPage 256 TONEThe power-on valuesPage 257 TRIGPage 258 TRIGLine 20 suspends measurements by setting theLines 30 and 40. Page 259: Chapter 7 BASIC Language for the 3458A Chapter 7 BASIC Language for the 3458A. Introduction. 261 Knowing When a Subprogram is Paused. 277. How It.

Page 260 260 Chapter 7 BASIC Language for the 3458AIntroductionPage 263 DIV, MOD, ABS, SQR, LOG, EXP, LGT, SIN, COS, ATNPage 264 New Multimeter CommandsPage 265 3458A BASIC Language Example ProgramRead M into computer. Page 267 in an assignment statement with the LET command. For example, theRaises e toPage 275 The subprogram will not be stored if a subprogram nesting error exists whenPage 278 in the subprogram. The RETURN command returns control to the callerFor example,Page 280 130 ENDIntroduction. 283. DC Voltage. 284. Resistance. 285. DC Current. 287. AC Voltage. Page 282 282 Appendix A SpecificationsIntroduction The following examples illustrate the error Example 5: Absolute Accuracy; 90 DayDC Voltage 2. Additional. Page 285 Reading Rate (Auto-Zero Off) Selected Reading Rates 1 1. For PRESET; DELAY 0;Range 24 Hour 2 90 Day3 1 Year3 2 Year3. DC Current (DCI Function)General Information. The 3458A supports three techniques for measuring true rms AC voltage, each offering unique. Range 45. Page 290 High Frequency Temperature Coefficient Maximum Input. Rated Input Non-DestructiveAC Current (ACI and ACDCI Functions) 1. Additional error beyondFor first reading or range change error using default delays, add.01% of input step additional error for. General Information. The 3458A supports three independent methods for signal digitizing. Each method is discussed below. Page 296 Dynamic Performance. Test Input (2 x full scale pk-pk). Function-Range-Measurement. The time required to program via GPIB a new measurement configuration, trigger a reading, and. Type of Ratio 1 1. All SETACV measurement. Operating Environment Warranty Period. Operating Location: Indoor Use Only. Page 300 300 Appendix A SpecificationsIntroduction. 303Appendix B GPIB Commands. IntroductionPage 307 TRIGGER (GET)Page 308 TRIGGER (GET)Introduction. 311Introduction. Page 312 Covers Removal Do the following:Page 313 Figure 36. 3458 Left sidePage 314 Figure 38. 3458 Rear viewPage 315 Figure 39.

3458 Inside bottom viewAppendix C Procedure to Lock Out. Page 316 Figure 41. 3458 Inside top viewAppendix C Procedure to Lock Out. Page 318 Covers Installation Do the following:Introducing the 3458A. 321Page 322 the speed of testing. For example, in many systems accuracy can be traded forPage 323 throughput and still provides 70% of the overhead programming like StatisticalThe track-and-hold path isPage 325 Figure 44. Shows thePage 326 andPage 327 Figure 45. Settling timePage 330 Frequency and The track-and-hold path is also the route the signal must take for frequency andPage 331 storage. The transfer rate into and out of the Reading Memory and the GPIBPage 332 Measurement List The most efficient method of using the 3458A within a system is to establish aPage 333 A BenchmarkPage 334 1 DCV Page 335 1180 DIM A(37)When the. Page 338 Still Faster A considerable increase in throughput can be had if you use TRANSFERIntroduction. 349. Speed with Resolution. 349Page 348 348 Appendix E High Resolution Digitizing With the 3458AIntroductionPage 350 measurement-to-measurement jitter. Through the track-and-hold path, the 3458APage 354 TRIG is the next condition to be satisfied. Only after both TARM and TRIG eventPage 355 cycle. Two methods suggest themselves for this analysis: (1) sweep the entirePage 356 Figure 58. Here is aEach subprogram has its own. Page 358 Figure 59. Example ofErrors in MeasurementsPage 360 An inescapable reality in any measurement is the attendant noise with increasingPage 361 Figure 62. Analog-to-digA AnnunciatorBurst complete, 113 for AC measurements, 62. Page 365 Defaulting parameters, 152 E. DEFEAT, 168 Editing, display, 38Delay. Page 366 Execution, suspending subprogram, 72 Frequency, 65. Exponential parameters, 35 reference, 58. External Front panel, 27Page 367 INBUF, 185 power fuse, replacing the, 21. Increasing the reading rate, 102 power requirements, 17. Indication, overload, 96, 99 voltage. Page 368 Menu scroll, 36 OHM, 213.

Methods OHM example, high-speed, 105Page 370 line power fuse, 21 Selecting. Requirements input terminals, 50Page 371 resolution, 60, 68 Subprogram. Specifying Resolution, when to, 69 autostart, 73. SREAL executing, 72Page 372 command, 152 UsingTEST, 254 DINT output format, 99. Test key, 30 DREAL output. And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer, you have convenient answers with Agilent 3458a Manual. To get started finding Agilent 3458a Manual, you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed. Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented. I get my most wanted eBook Many thanks If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. Measurement Functions If Agilent receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, Agilent will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be defective. Ground the equipment: For Safety Class 1 equipment (equipment having a protective earth terminal), an uninterruptible safety earth ground must be provided from the mains power source to the product input wiring terminals or supplied power cable. The manual consists of the following chapters: Chapter 1 Installation and Maintenance This chapter contains information on initial inspection, installation, and maintenance. It also contains lists of the multimeter' s available options and accessories. Chapter 1 Installation and Maintenance. Many of the rear panel connectors and switches are referenced in this section. The length of the GPIB cables must not exceed 20 meters (65 feet) total, or 2 meters (6.5 feet) per device, whichever is less. Contact the nearest Agilent Sales Office for shipping instructions prior to returning the instrument. It shows you how to use the multimeter's front panel, how to send commands to the multimeter from remote, and how to retrieve data from remote.

Since front panel operation is discussed first, it covers important topics such as the power-on state, display annunciators, the various ways to select or enter parameters, and how to make a simple DC voltage measurement. This annunciator is on whenever you are not using autorange. Manual Ranging The second choice lets you manually select the range. When the multimeter is in the measurement mode (that is, the multimeter is making and displaying measurements or the display is showing OVLD) you can change the range by pressing the up or down arrow keys. Reading the Error Whenever the display's ERR annunciator is illuminated, one or more errors have been detected. A record of hardware errors is stored in the auxiliary Register error register. The front panel Reset key returns you to the power-on state without having Multimeter to cycle the multimeter's power. To reset the multimeter, press: Reset The multimeter begins the reset process with a display test which illuminates all display elements including the annunciators as shown in Figure 8. Press: Trig The display shows: This is the command header for the trigger command. Notice the multimeter automatically placed a space after the command header. Selecting a Parameter For parameters that have a list of choices (non-numeric parameters), you can use the up and down arrow keys to review the choices. Suppose you want to suspend triggering. Press the up or down arrow key until the display shows: Press: Enter You have now changed the trigger event from auto (power-on state) to HOLD. Press: NPLC This display shows: Notice that if you press the up or down arrow key, no parameter choice is displayed. This means there is no menu and you must enter a number.Since this is not a numeric parameter, a menu is available for this parameter. Use the up or down arrow keys to cycle through the list of choices. When the display shows: Execute the command by pressing: Enter You have now selected five readings per trigger event.

Query Commands There are a number of commands in the alphabetic command directory that end with a question mark. For example, access and execute the SETACV RNDM command from the alphabetic command menu. Now press the front panel ACV key. After assigning a string to one of these keys (maximum string length is 40 characters), pressing that key displays the string on the display. You can then execute the string by pressing the Enter key. If you want to change a key definition, you must repeat the above steps. This includes reading and changing the GPIB address, sending a command to the multimeter, and retrieving data from the multimeter.When sending a remote command, you append this address to the GPIB interface's select code (normally 7). For example, if the select code is 7 and the device address is 22, the combination is 722. Whenever the multimeter is making measurements and you have not enabled reading memory (reading memory is discussed in Chapter 4), you can get a reading by running the following program. 10 ENTER 722;A 20 PRINT A 30 END. This chapter also shows you how to use subprogram and state memory, the input buffer, and the status register. After using this chapter to configure the multimeter for your application, you can then use Chapter 4 to learn how to trigger readings and transfer them to reading memory or the GBIB output buffer. Reading the Error When a hardware error is detected, the multimeter sets a bit in the auxiliary, error register and also sets bit 0 in the error register.When a programming Registers error is detected, the multimeter sets a bit in the error register only. The ERRSTR? command reads each error (one error at a time) and then clears the corresponding bit. Multimeter (RESET is primarily for front panel use.

) It's a good idea to execute PRESET NORM as the first step when configuring the multimeter since it sets the multimeter to a known configuration and suspends readings by setting the trigger event to synchronous (TRIG SYN) command. If the lead resistance is large compared to the resistance to be measured, readings will be inaccurate. Specifying Integration Time For DC or ohms measurements, you can specify the integration time directly (in seconds) using the APER (aperture) command. When you specify a resolution, you are actually indirectly specifying an integration time.Offset Compensation Because a resistance measurement involves measuring the voltage induced across the resistance, any external voltage present (offset voltage) will affect the measurement accuracy. With offset compensation enabled, the multimeter corrects resistance measurements by canceling the effects of the offset voltage. Note When taking measurements on the 10mV and 100mV ranges using any AC measurement method, it is possible for radiated noise (such as transients caused large motors turning on and off) to cause inaccurate readings. This method works well for measuring signals in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 2 MHz and can provide the fastest reading rate of the three methods. Table 16 shows each current range and its full scale reading, maximum resolution, and the shunt resistor used. Table 17: FSOURCE Parameters FSOURCE Definition Measurement Capabilities Parameter Frequency Period AC-coupled AC voltage input 1Hz — 10MHz 100ns — 1s ACDCV DC-coupled AC voltage input 1Hz — 10MHz 100ns — 1s AC-coupled AC current input 1Hz —. For analog AC measurements, the integration time determines Integration Time the maximum digits of resolution and, along with the specified bandwidth affects the measurement speed. Typically, you should select the integration time that provides adequate speed while maintaining an acceptable amount of accuracy and resolution.

Table 18 shows the relationships between integration time and digits of resolution for analog AC measurements. For sampled ACV or ACDCV, random sampling (SETACV RNDM) has a fixed resolution of 4.5 digits that cannot be changed.For example, the following program specifies AC voltage ratio measurements (on the 10V range) using the synchronous sampling conversion. Nested Subprograms You can use a subprogram to call another subprogram (nested subprograms). For example, when the following subprogram is called (CALL 1 command), it takes 10 DC voltage readings and then calls the previously stored subprogram DCCUR1. Once you have found the correct state, press Enter to recall the state. Deleting States You can delete a single stored state using the PURGE command. When one of these events occurs, it sets a corresponding bit, in the status register. Reading the Status The STB.They do not, however, set bit 6 or assert SRQ.This chapter also discusses how to increase the reading rate and GPIB bus transfer speed, how to measure the reading rate, how to use the multimeter's EXTOUT signal, and how to use the math operations. That is, the trigger arm event enables a subsequent Event trigger event. You specify the trigger arm event using the TARM command. The Trigger Event When the specified trigger event occurs (and the trigger arm event has already occurred), it enables a subsequent sample event. In the following program, the PRESET NORM command sets the trigger event to synchronous. Line 40 specifies 15 readings per synchronous trigger event. Line 50 requests data from the multimeter. This satisfies the synchronous trigger event and initiates the readings. This delay time is actually the settling time allowed before readings, which ensures accurate measurements. The trigger event is synchronous (selected by the PRESET NORM command). The number of readings per trigger event is set to 10.

When the controller executes line 50, the synchronous event occurs which enables the sample event (EXT). Upon the arrival of a negative edge transition on the Ext Trig terminal, the multimeter takes a single reading, which is transferred, to the controller. AUTO AUTO, EXT, TIMER, After a negative edge transition on the Ext Trig input, one LINE, LEVEL reading is taken per sample event until the specified number of readings are completed. One reading is then taken per SYN event until the specified number of readings are completed. The memory space required for each format is: ASCII - 16 bytes per reading SINT -. Since ASCII has the greatest.You should not use the SINT or DINT format for frequency or period measurements;. The TRANSFER statement is the fastest way to transfer readings across the GPIB, especially when used with the direct memory access (DMA) GPIB interface.Also when using the ENTER statement, you must use the FORMAT OFF command to instruct the controller to use its internal data structure instead of ASCII. After removing some or all of the readings from memory, you can resume measurements by changing the trigger arm event (TARM command). The autorange function samples the input before each reading, taking more time per reading than readings made on a fixed range. For these measurements, the specified resolution (which also selects gate time) has a major effect on the reading rate. The specifications in Appendix A show reading rates for frequency and period measurements based on the specified resolution. Readings are output using the SINT format.The program stores 5000 readings in reading memory using the SINT format.For sampled AC voltage measurements (SETACV SYNC or RNDM) a pulse is output after each computed reading, not after each sample in the measurement process. The EXTOUT SRQ pulse does not necessarily occur whenever the SRQ bit is set; it occurs whenever an enabled status event occurs.

The following program uses the SRQ event to synchronize the multimeter to external equipment. The program downloads a subprogram to the multimeter. The multimeter can perform the null, scale, percent, dB, dBm, filter, RMS, or temperature-related math operations on readings.Reading is any reading following the first reading. After you select the NULL operation, the first reading made (real-time) or the first reading taken from memory (post-process) is stored in the OFFSET register. You can use the PERC math operation to determine the difference (in percent) between an ideal value and the measured value. Line 40 stores the amplifier's input voltage (0.1 V) in the REF register.Figure 22 shows the result of digitizing a sine wave. This chapter discusses the various ways to digitize signals. The importance of the sampling rate, and how to use level triggering. See the Specifications in Appendix A for details.Level triggering allows you to specify when (with respect to voltage and slope) to begin sampling. The primary commands executed by PRESET DIG are: TARM HOLD Suspends triggering. Refer to Chapter 4 for more information on the triggering hierarchy. To ensure the first sample is accurate, insert a 500ns delay before the first sample (DELAY 500E-9 command). This means that sub-sampling can be used to digitize signals with frequency components up to 12 MHz (the upper bandwidth of the signal path for sub-sampling). Composite waveform The Sync Source In the preceding sub-sampling example, it was assumed that the multimeter could somehow synchronize itself to the periods of the input waveform. This Event is the function of the sync source event. You can use either the EXT event or the LEVEL event as the sync source event. Figure 31 shows the operation of the LEVEL sync source event (for this example, the LEVEL is specified as 0%, positive slope, AC-coupling). The measurement uses the default level triggering for the sync source event (trigger from input signal, 0%.

AC-coupling, positive slope). Line 110 generates a SYN event and transfers the samples directly to the computer. This program is helpful when developing digitizing programs (especially when sub-sampling) since it allows you to see the data being captured. This includes core commands, command termination, parameters, query commands, lists of commands by functional group, and a table relating commands to measurement functions. The remainder of the chapter consists of detailed descriptions of each command (listed in alphabetical order, by command). Each instrument connected to GPIB has a unique address. The examples used in this Conventions manual are intended for Hewlett-Packard Series 200 or 300 Computers using BASlC language. They assume an GPIB interface select code of 7 and a device address of 22 (factory address setting) resulting in a combined GPIB address of 722. The range of values for this command is 500ns to 1s. When you send the APER.The QFORMAT (query format) command can be used to specify whether query responses will be numeric (as shown above), alpha, or alphanumeric. Measurement Functions A bullet ( ) indicates the command applies with no restrictions. A number (1 - 5) indicates the command applies with qualifications (see numbered footnotes below the table). Description Performs the DCV, OHMS, and AC autocals DC voltage gain and offset (see first Remark) ACV flatness, gain, and offset (see second Remark) OHMS OHMS gain and offset (see third Remark) The valid range for aperture is 0 - 1s in increments of 100ns. Description Zero measurement is updated once, then only after a function, range, aperture, NPLC, or resolution change. Zero measurement is updated after every measurement. ONCE Zero measurement is updated once, then only after a function, range, aperture, NPLC, or resolution change. When enabled, the beeper emits a 1 kHz beep if an error occurs.